新视角研究生英语读说写第二册1-8课后翻译-- 2

Book II Unit 1 E-C

One problem with lectures is that listening intelligently is hard work. Reading the same material in a textbook is a more efficient way to learn because students can proceed as slowly as they need to until the subject matter becomes clear to them. Even simply paying attention is very difficult; people can listen at a rate of four hundred to six hundred words a minute, while the most impassioned professor talks at scarcely a third of that speed. This time lag between speech and comprehension leads to daydreaming. Many students believe years of watching television have sabotaged their attention span, but their real problem is that listening attentively is much harder than they think. (Para.9)

听讲课存在的一个问题是:会听是很难的事。阅读课本中的相同内容是更有效的学习方法,因为学生可以根据其需要慢慢阅读直到他们理解这些内容。有时甚至仅仅做到专心听讲都很难。人们可以以每分钟400-600个字的速度听,而最富有激情的教授说话的速度也很难达到这个速度的1/3。讲话和理解之间的时间差导致开小差。很多学生认为多年来看电视已经削弱了他们保持注意力的能力。但是他们真正的问题是专心听课比他们认为的要难得多。 Lectures will never entirely disappear from the university scene both because they seem to be economically necessary and because they spring from a long tradition in a setting that values tradition for its own sake. But the lectures too frequently come at the wrong end of the students’ educational careers — during the first two years, when they most need close, even individual, instruction. If lecture classes were restricted to juniors and seniors, who are less in need of scholarly nurturing and more able to prepare work on their own, they would be far less destructive of students’ interests and enthusiasms than the present system. After all, students must learn to listen before they can listen to learn. (Para.15)

讲课这一方式不会完全从大学消失。一是因为讲课似乎从经济上是必需的,二是讲课起源于悠久的传统,而且人们又把传统本身看得很重。但是,讲课通常出现在学生接受教育生涯的错误的那一端——在大学的第一和第二年,那时他们最需要密切的、甚至是针对个体需要的指导。如果讲课这一形式局限于三、四年级的学生,则对学生的兴趣和热情的破坏力会比目前的制度小得多,因为三、四年级的学生不太需要学科上的指导与帮助,而且更有能力自己制定学习计划。毕竟,学生在能够从听讲课中学到知识之前必须先要学会去听。

Book II Unit 2 E-C

The fire destroyed everything in the palace. Nothing of the magnificent furniture, studded with gold and silver, has survived.

Most of us associate very strongly with the place of our birth or the place we have learned to call home. It can hurt very much not to be able to go there physically in order to feel secure.

1.我们大多数人都把自己同自己的出生地或我们称之为家的地方紧密相联。不能回家以获得安全感是令人痛苦的。 Other students are very excited in the beginning only to find, after several weeks, that they are starting to miss what was familiar and wish for a visit with friends and family.

2.别的学生一开始很兴奋,几周后却发现自己开始想念所熟知的事物,并希望见到朋友和家人。

Homesickness can strike any of us when we have moved to new surroundings and are being called upon to meet our needs in a different way and with different people.

3.当我们搬迁到新的环境,需要以不同方式与不同的人交往以满足自己的需要的时候, 我们每个人都会有想家的感觉。

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