胡壮麟语言学笔记 第二章

自认为不错哦

Chapter 2 Speech Sounds

2.1 Speech production and perception

Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. It includes three main areas:

1. Articulatory phonetics – the study of the production of speech sounds

2. Acoustic phonetics – the study of the physical properties of the sounds produced in

speech

3. Auditory phonetics – the study of perception of speech sounds

Most phoneticians are interested in articulatory phonetics.

2.2 Speech organs

Speech organs are those parts of the human body involved in the production of speech. The speech organs can be considered as consisting of three parts: the initiator of the air stream, the producer of voice and the resonating cavities.

2.3 Segments, divergences, and phonetic transcription

2.3.1 Segments and divergences

As there are more sounds in English than its letters, each letter must represent more

than one sound.

2.3.2 Phonetic transcription

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): the system of symbols for representing the

pronunciation of words in any language according to the principles of the International Phonetic Association. The symbols consists of letters and diacritics. Some letters are taken from the Roman alphabet, some are special symbols.

2.4 Consonants

2.4.1 Consonants and vowels

A consonant is produced by constricting or obstructing the vocal tract at some

places to divert, impede, or completely shut off the flow of air in the oral cavity.

A vowel is produced without obstruction so no turbulence or a total stopping of the

air can be perceived.

2.4.2 Consonants

The categories of consonant are established on the basis of several factors. The

most important of these factors are:

1. the actual relationship between the articulators and thus the way in which the

air passes through certain parts of the vocal tract (manner of articulation);

2. where in the vocal tract there is approximation, narrowing, or the obstruction

of the air (place of articulation).

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