2018届高考英语总复习真题研练52答案

真题研练52

Task 1:阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

(2015·北京,C)

Life in the Clear

Transparent animals let light pass through their bodies the same way light passes through a window.These animals typically live between the surface of the ocean and a depth of about 3,300 feet—as far as most light can reach.Most of them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch.Sonke Johnsen,a scientist in biology,says,“These animals live through their life alone.They never touch anything unless they're eating it,or unless something is eating them.”

And they are as clear as glass.How does an animal become see­through? It's trickier than you might think.

The objects around you are visible because they interact with light.Light typically travels in a straight line.But some materials slow and scatter(散射) light,bouncing it away from its original path.Others absorb light,stopping it dead in its tracks.Both scattering and absorption make an object look different from other objects around it, so you can see it easily.

But a transparent object doesn't absorb or scatter light,at least not very much.Light can pass through it without bending or stopping.That means a transparent object doesn't look very different from the surrounding air or water.You don't see it—you see the things behind it.

To become transparent,an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light.Living materials can stop light because they contain pigments(色素) that absorb specific colors of light.But a transparent animal doesn't have pigments,so its tissues won't absorb light.According to Johnsen,avoiding absorption is actually easy.The real challenge is preventing light from scattering.

Animals are built of many different materials—skin,fat,and more—and light moves through each at a different speed.Every time light moves into a material with a new speed, it bends and scatters.Transparent animals use different tricks to fight scattering.Some animals are simply very small or extremely flat.Without much tissue to scatter light, it is easier to be see­through.Others build a large,clear mass of non­living jelly­like(果

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